A licensed pharmacist requires a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree. This is a professional degree program which in some schools can be entered directly but in others is entered after a minimum of two years of a regular college science program. A degree in chemistry can lead into programs at this level, or can be a preparation for more advanced Ph.D. level programs in the pharmaceutical sciences involving research. A chemistry B.S. also is preparation for careers in the analytical and manufacturing parts of the pharmaceutical industry. Students interested in this focus area should take elective courses in biology, especially genetics and microbiology including laboratory, human physiology and microbiology.